# About Search, Navigate and Actuate for the year 2013-2014

You arived at the course page of "Search, navigate and actuate". This page is not in its final stage. Updates will follow without warning. See date of "last update".
This web-page is maintained by Toto van Inge ,Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam

# Introduction

The official description of course baiZSB6 is found in the (in Dutch) Studiegids. Even more information is given in the (in Dutch) Studiewijzer.
Also a Blackboard portal is available. Here you will find Leo Dorst's material.
See the tab at the top of the page labeled Lab Course for the tasks you should fulfill during the first three weeks.

During the last week, you work in a group on your own defined experiment.
Have a peek in the students their experiment papers from 2013-2004 listed here
The site of previous years can be found here.

# Contents

• Search Algorithms
Game playing is an example of type of problems that can easily decomposed in subproblems. For interesting games, like chess, the tree of subproblems grows to fast to be searched exhaustively, so other approaches are necessary. To solve the game we have to find a solution tree regardless of the opponent's replies.
• MiniMax principle
• alpha-beta algorithm
• increasing the effectiveness with advice rules

• Path planning
You have had planning algorithms such as A* that work on graphs. So let's try to reformulate the path planning problem as a graph problem. These graphs are somewhat special, it is convenient to see them as discretized spaces because this leads to better implementations. So then we need the notion of configuration space to explain the graph's properties.
• A* revisited
• Mapping path planning as graph search
• Task space and discretized configuration space
• Kinematics -> connectivity
• Criteria -> metric
• Obstacles -> forbidden nodes
• Examples: robot arm and self-parking car
• Other approaches of mapping path planning into graphs

• Trajectory planning
If you have setpoints, how to make it into a controllable path.

• Rigid body motion
• physical rigid bodies as idealization
• physical space as vector space
• representing motions using linear algebra (coordinate-free)
• isometries
• proof of decomposition theorem: rigid body motion = rotation followed by translation
• coordinates: vector spaces in the computer
• rotation matrices: how to design them
• reference angles: Euler angles
• homogeneous coordinates
• Denavit-Hartenberg notation
• Forward kinematics
• Inverse kinematics (briefly)
• Redundancy and degeneracy (briefly)
• Differential kinematics

# Schedule

This schedule has some correspondance with DataNose, but in case of doubt use this page as reference.

## Go, where no one has gone before

It is not the final result that counts, but your summery of your survey. Document your progress, experiments and decisions of your practical work and experiment in a Paper.

The knowledge gained during this year and especially during the last three weeks, you can now explore new possibilities.

Here are some suggestions:

• Path-planning for a Hemisson-robot
• Talking mouth for a Aibo-robot
• Maze navigation with a Nao-robot
• Looking to a talking person with a Nao-robot.
• Extend the checkmate problem to more complex situations
• Refine the visualisation of the Virtual robot.
• Creating a gamepad interface for a virtual Aibo (Visual Basic)
• WiiBot RTX UMI
• Solve chess endgame with Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS)

It is recommended to work in groups of three or four students. However, the groups size should fit the load of the proposed experiment.

 date time type subject location lecturer/assistant Monday 23/6 9.00-10.00 Exp Group A: SP B1.24HIJ Group B: SP B1.24ABC Self Study Monday 23/6 10.00-16.00 Exp Group A: SP B1.24HIJ Group B: SP B1.24ABC ???? Monday 23/6 16.00-17.00 Exp Group A: SP B1.24HIJ Group B: SP B1.24ABC Self Study Tuesday 24/6 9.00-10.00 Exp Group A: SP B1.24HIJ Group B: SP B1.24ABC Self Study Tuesday 24/6 10.00-16.00 Exp Group A: SP B1.24HIJ Group B: SP B1.24ABC ???? Tuesday 24/6 16.00-17.00 Exp Group A: SP B1.24HIJ Group B: SP B1.24ABC Self Study Wednesday 25/6 9.00-10.00 Exp Group A: SP G0.23-G0.25 Group B: SP G0.18 Self Study Wednesday 25/6 10.00-16.00 Exp Group A: SP G0.23-G0.25 Group B: SP G0.18 ???? Wednesday 25/6 16.00-17.00 Exp Group A: SP G0.23-G0.25 Group B: SP G0.18 Self Study Thursday 26/6 9.00-10.00 Exp Group A: SP F2.04 Group B: SP G0.18 Self Study Thursday 26/6 10.00-16.00 Exp Group A: SP F2.04 Group B: SP G0.18 ???? Thursday 26/6 16.00-17.00 Exp Group A: SP F2.04 Group B: SP G0.18 Self Study Friday 27/6 9:00~13.00 Exp Demonstrations and Paper Group A: SP G0.23-G0.25 Group B: SP G0.18 Toto van Inge Casper van HoutenNick de WolfYsbrand GalamaTim van Rossum Friday 27/6 about 17.00 Exp Barbecue near canteen VIA

# Evaluation

Follow the links to find guidance on writing a LabBook and a paper.

You will be evaluated on your LabBooks (see: LabBook criteria) and on your paper (see: Paper criteria).

# Literature

For the implementation in prolog we will look at chapter 24 of Prolog Programming for Artificial Intelligence by Ivan Bratko. The companion website of the 4th edition is not yet available, the companion website of the 3th edition contains several student resources. This book was explored until chapter 13 in the previous course Logic Programming and Search Techniques.

A short introduction will be given based on the second part of Introduction to AI Robotics by Robin Murphy: Navigation.
Part I of the book was in the previous years explored in the course Reactive Behaviours. Now this course is replaced the more advanced course Probabibilistic Robotics / Autonomous Mobile Robots. Murphy's book is not longer required, and should not be bought. The two chapters are available electronically( Chapter 9 and Chapter 10).

Further we use the syllabus 'An Introduction to Robotics' by Leo Dorst and a lab manual. The syllabus available from the Dikatenverkoop (check the opening times at the VIA-site).

## Inheritance

In the old days, when KI Bachelors were not schooled at Dutch Universities, a different course was given with another focus. Still, much can be learned from the course 'Robotica' 2003 A.D.

The origin of this course is even older: 'Robotica' 1988 A.D. In that early period I made the decision to purchase a robot arm: the UMI rtx. It is the one still alive in the current course!