Language is extremely complex, extremely useful, universally found in all human populations
and fundamentally different from any system of communication in other animals. Language is
also acquired spontaneously within a few years by every healthy human child, and, although
there is a recognizable language processing network in the adult brain, it does not seem to rely
on anatomical or neural structures, or cell types, proteins or genes that differ fundamentally from
those found in closely related species without language. These sets of properties of language
pose a major challenge for the language sciences: how do we reconcile observations about the
uniqueness of language with those about the biological continuity of the underlying neural and
genetic mechanisms? In my research I try to face this challenge head-on. Where much of the debate in linguistics has been between traditions that emphasized either uniqueness or continuity, I try to develop models that do justice to insights from both traditions.

Iterated Learning

I believe an important part of the solution to this puzzle is the mechanism of cultural evolution, as demonstrated in particular by models in the iterated learning framework (Kirby, 2000) that I helped develop during my PhD research (2000-2005) and afterwards (Zuidema, 2003; Ferdinand and Zuidema, 2009). The key idea here is that languages will, in the cultural transmission from generation to generation, adapt to the peculiarities of pre-existing learning and processing mechanisms of the brain. These pecularities might be there for reasons that have nothing to do with language or communication, but by adapting to them, languages can become much more complex than they could have otherwise (under constraints of expressivity, learnability and processability). This explains how small changes in the biology underlying language could in principle have major effects on the languages that we are able to learn – and thus provides a partial answer to the grand challenge – but much work remains in finding what exactly those small (but essential) biological changes are.

Hierarchical Compositionality

Many language researchers suspect that one of the key biological innovations making language possible is the ability to hierarchically combine words into phrases, small phrases into larger phrases and ultimately into sentences and discourse, while still being able to compute the meaning of these
combinations. I have termed this property ’hierarchical compositionality’ (HC), and reviewed
evidence from comparative biology that indicates that HC is a central concept in understanding the many qualitative differences between human language and various animal communication
systems (Zuidema, 2013). Interestingly, the difficulty of neural network models to account for HC
provides additional evidence that a qualitative rewiring of the neural architecture is required to
deal with the HC structure of natural language (e.g., Jackendoff, 2002). HC is therefore a prime
candidate for the biological innovations that we are after. An important focus of my research, with my PhD student Dieuwke Hupkes and others, has therefore become the possible neural representation of hierarchical structure in language.


Once the ability to represent hierarchical structures is present a new problem arises: how to navigate
the space of all possible hierarchical structures that could be assigned to a specific sentence. In
computational linguistics this problem is usually conceived of as a problem of probabilistic in-
ference: how do we learn a probabilistic grammar from examples (from a train set) such that
the probability it assigns to the correct parse of a previously unseen sentence (from a test set)
is higher than the probabilities assigned to incorrect parses. Train and test sets are usually very
large (tens or hundreds of thousands of sentences) derived from naturally occurring (written)
text. This is a very different focus than that of psycholinguistics, where the focus has been on a
small set of carefully constructed sentences and the temporal, error and neural activation profiles
of human interpretations of those sentences.

I have spent much time and effort on developing a framework to solve the probabilistic inference task, which I have called Parsimonious Data-oriented Parsing, which is based on the (not so parsimonious) data-oriented parsing framework (Scha, 1990; Bod, 1998). We have had some great successes, in particular some of the best parsing results (with a pure, generative model) in English (on the Penn WSJ parsing benchmark test) with a model called Double-DOP (Sangati and Zuidema, 2011), which was also key in obtaining state-of-the-art results in parsing German and Dutch (van Cranenburgh and Bod, 2013). See here for an online demo. However, much work remains in connecting the insights we have obtained in this framework (about the actual probabilistic dependencies observable in large corpora) to research in the psycholinguistic tradition (c.f. Sangati and Keller, 2013).

Neural Networks

A first major step in bridging probabilistic grammars and more neurally plausible models of language processing is provided by Recursive Neural Networks (RxNNs). Unlike recurrent neural networks, recursive neural networks are hybrid symbolic-connectionist models, that rely on a symbolic control structure to represent hierarchical structure. That said, they do provide a connectionist alternative
to the treatment of syntactic and semantic categories and probabilities in probabilistic grammars
and formal semantics. In that sense, they complement the work I do on neural representation of
hierarchical structure by providing a candidate neural account of structural disambiguation and
semantic composition.


Recently, RxNNs have been successfully applied to a range of different tasks in computational linguistics and formal semantics, including constituency parsing, language modelling and recognizing logical entailment (e.g., Socher et al., 2013). I have worked out, with my PhD student
Phong Le, an important extension of the standard RNN that we call Inside-Outside Semantics. This extension involves adding a second vector to every node in a parse tree for representing its
context. These context vectors can, like the existing content vectors, be computed composition-
ally. With this major innovation, and a number of task-specific techniques, we have managed
to obtain very promising results on tasks that heretofore did not allow the application of RxNNs:
semantic role labeling, missing word prediction, supervised dependency parsing and unsupervised
dependency parsing. On the last two task we have obtained state-of-the-art results: above 93%
accuracy on supervised parsing (Penn WSJ benchmark) and 66.2% accuracy on unsupervised
parsing (previously best was 64.4%). We are currently working on a range of studies of the RxNN and their extensions, including one project, with my student Sara Veldhoen, investigating whether such networks can learn logical reasoning.

Artificial Language Learning

In the research discussed so-far I try to account for complex patterns in natural language use. A final strand of my research interests concerns the tradition of Artificial Language Learning, where greatly simplified ’languages’ are designed and presented to participants in controlled experiments. One intriguing aspects of such experiments is that they can involve not only human adults, but also prelinguistic infants and non-human animals. Experiments in this tradition have provided some evidence for human-specific biases and/or skills in discovering patterns. Such findings are obviously extremely relevant for the grand question underlying my research about continuity and complexity. However, it turns out that the evidence is less conclusive than it has sometimes been presented. My work in this area has focused on using insights from modelling and formal language theory to (re)interpret experimental findings.


One eye-catching result, published in PNAS (van Heijningen et al., 2009) is that experiments
claimed to show that humans and starlings can, while Tamarin monkeys cannot learn contextfree
languages suffer from a (non-trivial) problem in the experimental design. With my PhD-student Raquel Alhama we are investigating another finding from this literature, about a dissociation between so-called ’statistical learning’ and ’rule learning’, and a lack of evidence for the latter in rats (and presumably other non-human mammals). We have worked out a unified model that provides an excellent fit with both human and rat data, using quantitatively different parameters for both species but no qualitative difference in the mechanisms involved.